ASNE Day '84
Technology In Engineering — Backbone Of Ship Design, Construction And Repair Washington, D.C. — May 3—4 The American Society of Naval Engineers will present ASNE Day 1984 with the theme "Technology in Engineering—Backbone of Ship Design, Construction, and Repair." ASNE Day is the Society's annual national convention with technical sessions, exhibits, and social functions. It will be held May 3 and 4 this year at the Shoreham Hotel in Washington, D.C.
The meeting is climaxed by the banquet on Friday evening, May 4. This year's banquet speaker will be Vadm. Robert L. Walters, Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Surface Warfare.
More than 100 companies, military commands, and other organizations will display their products, services, and capabilities. These exhibits will portray the latest technology that supports the development, building, and outfitting of commercial and military shipping. Also represented will be organizations that interface with the industrial community and direct the programs and projects engaged in modernizing and updating the U.S. Navy Fleet.
The luncheon speaker on May 3 will be Commodore Grace M.
Hopper, USNR, the Navy's own pioneer of modern computer technology and the inventor of the computer language COBOL. Her presence will constitute a milestone in the annals of the Society, as she is thought to be the first woman speaker in ASNE's history. Technical Program The two-day meeting will include technical papers selected by the Committee from among the many submitted for presentation. They will cover subjects of current interest including ship design, combat systems, ship acquisition and modernization, ship auxiliary systems, hull coatings, hull designs, and ship propulsion.
Thursday, May 3 Palladian Room—Session 1A Ship Acquisition and Modernization Moderator: Radm. James W. Lisanby, USN (Ret.) Capt. James W. Kehoe, USN (Ret.), assistant 9:00 a.m.
"Design of Modernized Battleships and Cruisers," by Philip J. Sims, James F. Edwards Sr., LCdr Robert L. Dickey, USN, and H.S. Shull.
In recent reactivation studies of battleships and cruisers from the reserve fleet, the Navy faced three major problems: the baseline data on the ships was not readily available or could not be assured to be reliable; a new generation cruise missile armament was proposed; and the ship delivery schedule was very tight. After doing a feasibility study for a particular ship system, design engineers were taken on board the mothballed ship to resolve the design problems. Being on the ship allowed an intensive effort and immediate reference to the actual ship configuration. The tools used to control this effort were a ship check plan, a ship form, and the master arrangement drawing. Simultaneously with the design effort, the repair effort was scoped. The design evolution and solutions to the major problems are described in this paper. The results of the New Jersey effort are shown, with sample documentation, the ship characteristics, and the downstream design effort.
"The Ship Characteristics and Improvement Board—A Status Report," by Stuart Williams. On September 7, 1982, Adm.
W.N. Small, the VCNO, signed a memo establishing the Ship Characteristic and Improvement Board (SCIB). This memo ended months of deliberation between NAVSEA, NAVMAT, and OPNAV on how ship characteristics should best be developed and approved for both ship acquisition and fleet modernization programs.
By tracing the history of characteristics decision-making for naval ship programs, this paper establishes the foundation of the present SCIB. Organizational elements of the SCIB, including the functions of its permanent staff and working groups, are explained, and the recent track re- cord of the SCIB on various programs is reviewed. Based on its first full year of operation, an overall assessment of SCIB performance and a projection of future efforts is made.
"A Comparison of Naval Ship Design Procedures in the U.S. and Canada," by LCdr. James D. Ertner, USN, and Cdr. W.A. Tyler Cassedy, USN.
A synopsis of Canada's unified (combined Army, Navy, and Air Force) defense organization and decision-making structure is presented. This is followed by an explanation of the closely intertwined Program Management and Life-Cycle Management Systems, and their relationship in the Canadian ship design process. Next, U.S. Navy ship design procedures, including recent changes in program initiation procedures and creation of the SCIB, are viewed. Finally, the Canadian Department of National Defense and the U.S. Navy's design and acquisition processes are compared.
Diplomat Room—Session IB Ship Auxiliary Systems Moderator: Capt. George M. LaChance, USN LCdr. Kenneth M. Smith Jr., USN, assistant 9:00 a.m.
"Evolution of Navy Ship Sewage Systems—Gravity Through Vacuum Collection," by Milton W.
Most U.S. Navy ships have sewage collection, holding, and transfer systems that use conventional gravity-flush fixtures and a seawater flushing medium. This type system is relatively simple but is inherently heavy and bulky, and is totally dependent of shore support when used in port. Some recently designed Navy ships, the DD-963 and DDG-993 Classes, employ a vacuum collection, holding, and transfer system (VCHT) that uses reduced-volume flush commodes and urinals with either fresh water or seawater flushing and vacuum for waste transport. This system is light, compact, highly shore-independent, and provides significant system design flexibility.
This paper traces the evolution of Navy shipboard sewage systems from the original gravity collection system through the DD-963 Class VCHT system that used vacuum pumps, to a new and promising vacuum collection system that uses a sewage-powered eductor. 9:45 a.m.
"FFG-7 Class Fin Stabilizer System," USN, Edward J. McMahon, and Louis W. Nelson.
This paper discusses the new fin stabilizer system developed for the FFG-7 Class ships, and includes a brief history of fin stabilizers, advantages of fin stabilizers on Navy combatants, brief theory of system operation, approaches used in system acquisition and vendor selection, and an up-to-date status of the program.
"Experience With Reverse Osmosis Desalination Aboard USS Fletcher," by Wayne L. Adamson, Joseph F. Pizzino, and Wilbur L. Smith.
As part of a program to develop reverse osmosis (RO) desalination systems for shipboard fresh water production, the David Taylor Naval Ship R&D Center worked with NAVSEA to install a 12,000 gallon per day, two-stage RO plant aboard the USS Fletcher (DD-992) in 1981. The first stage provides potable water (less than 500 parts per million total dissolved solids) for crew needs; the second stage provides high-purity water (less than 2 parts per million of total dissolved solids) for boiler makeup. The plant has been producing acceptable water quality and quantity despite some materials-related problems. The system design has proven to be well suited for minimizing manning and maintenance requirements.
Palladian Room—Session 2A Ship Design Moderator: Peter A. Gale Susan M. Lee Bales, assistant 2:30 p.m.
"Technical Evaluation of the SES-200 High Length-to-Beam Surface Effect Ship," by John D. Adams and W.F. Beverly.
The requirement to operate surface effect ships (SES) efficiently at task force speeds without compromising their advantage of operating at higher speeds has been the subject of Navy research since 1970. These efforts showed that this could be achieved by selecting cushion length-to-beam proportions that place the high wavemaking drag region known as "hump" outside the operating envelope. Vessels with these characteristics are designated "High Length-to-Beam SES." This paper describes an extensive program undertaken by NAVSEA to validate this research and demonstrate high length-to-beam SES capabilities. Under this program, a 110-foot commercial SES was procured and stretched from a length-to-beam ratio of 2.65 to 4.25 by installing a 50-foot hull extension amidships. This vessel is the SES-200; it is the only large high length-to-beam SES in the world.
"The CONFORM Program—An Update," by Kenneth B. Spaulding Jr.
This paper provides a progress report on the NAVSEA Surface Ship Continuing Concept Formulation (CONFORM) Program, first introduced to the Society at ASNE Day 1981 by Cdr. Michael R. Terry, USN. Since that time the program has produced many designs, achieved significant visibility and influence, and evolved in character. Designs and problem areas are summarized, and the future potential of the program discussed.
"Combatant Ship Design Guidance Through Mission Effectiveness Analysis," by Dr. Dean A.
A combatant ship design technique is described that provides guidance for new designs and can assist in evaluating current designs and their revisions. The technique attempts to provide design evaluations by comparing competing designs in a mission performance context. For a selected mission, a number of ship alternatives are selected for study. Task groups are then selected to carry out the mission. The ship characteristics are determined to match each of the ship alternatives including size, first cost, and life cycle cost. Then the task groups are put through a simulated mission including enemy attack (defense by the group) and their offensive mission. The losses resulting from enemy action and the performance of the group in carrying out its mission are computed for the various enemy threats. Measures of effectiveness, both for the mission itself and the ship operating in a peacetime format, are then determined.
Diplomat Room—Session 2B Combat Systems I Moderator: Radm. John D. Beecher, USN Como. (Select) Lowell J. Holloway, USN, assistant 2:30 p.m.
"Current Trends in Naval Data Handling Systems," by Martin Wapner and Richard A.
The hand-wired, point-to-point cabling that has been the mainstay of data handling on naval ships is slowly but surely giving way to more advanced techniques that include data bussing and highspeed switching networks.
The Navy's AN/USQ-82(V) Shipboard Data Multiplex System (SDMS) is now installed and operating for technical and operational evaluation purposes on USS Oldendorf, a DD-963 Class destroyer.
The distributed switching system SITACS introduced at ASNE Day 1982 has now been breadboarded. In the foreign arena, NATO standard bus-network interfaces are being implemented in Norwegian, United Kingdom, and Canadian shipboard systems. These developments are reviewed and projections are made regarding future trends in naval data handling systems.
"Application of Fiber Optic Technology to Combatant Submarines: Near and Far-Term," by Ronald A. Swain and LCdr.
David C. Poyer, USNR-R.
Transmission of multiplexed data by means of optical fibers—pulses of light, conducted through channels of glass—offers many advantages over conventional multiwire systems. Optical fiber is lighter, easier to run, cheaper to install, is fireproof and resists shock, and is inherently resistant to EMI and EMP. It has been proven in commercial use.
Responding to these advantages, the Navy has for several years funded programs to provide military specifications for fiber optic (FO) connectors, couplers, splices, penetrators, sources, and detectors. This effort is near its successful end, and the Service has recently approved the first operational shipboard system. A fiber optic bus will carry data in the Submarine Advanced Combat System to be installed in new ships of the SSN-688 Class submarine construction program.
"Ship Combat System Simulation (SCSS)," by Dennis R. Mensh. This paper will describe a combat system integration and analysis tool called the Ship Combat System Simulation (SCSS), which was designed as an analysis tool to study Sensor, Command and Control, and Weapon System Integration for shipboard combat systems. The simulation represents the combat system components as nodes in a network. The nodes are connected by links. Data flows between the nodes through the links. The SCSS is a structured program simulation written in Simscript II.5. The structured pro- gram feature allows for ease of combat system reconfiguration into different types of architectures. Consequently, SCSS can be used to study and analyze different combat system architectures. Friday, May 4 Palladian Room—Session 3A Combat Systems II Moderator: Radm. Wayne E. Meyer, USN Como. (Select) Lowell J. Holloway, USN, assistant 9:30 a.m.
"The New Jersey-Tomahawk Story: From Retirement to Renaissance— A New Strike Capability," by Gerald R. Bell.
This paper examines the adaptation of the Tomahawk System for installation in New Jersey (BB- 62). The design modifications have been particularly critical, as the Baseline System is currently under development in USS Merill (DE-392). Urgent Navy requirements dictated the Battleship- Tomahawk effort overtake and lead the Baseline development in Merrill. Emphasis in this paper is placed upon discussion of planning, implementation, problems encountered, and the advanced capabilities surrounding New Jersey as a result of installing the Tomahawk weapons system.
The paper concludes with a discussion of the potential operational utilization of New Jersey in the strike warfare role that was lost to the surface Navy in World War II, when aircraft carriers supplanted battleships as the Navy's main strike arm.
"Detection—A Modern View," by Robert T. Hill.
Over the past 10 years or so, the Navy in its surface combatants has introduced a modest amount of sensor integration and automation, improving in several ways the "detection" function of the "detection- control-engagement" trio of functions embraced by the combat systems. After a review of the basic ideas of this integration, the further increases in inferential power that can be provided by application of several emerging technologies to a fairly broad sensor base, including that of the force, are presented. The technologies include multi-sensor operations and netting, far more use of a priori information, more inference from present signal processing, new signal processing, and the new computer circuitry, architecture, and programming fields frequently discussed today. The paper concludes with a discussion of a possible way to proceed to improve systems, considering that we cannot "stop and start over" in much of our sensor system design in the major combatants.
"Rationale for an ADA Software Engineering Environment for Navy Mission Critical Applications," by Robert A. Converse and LCdr. Kathleen Paige, USN.
This paper describes the lessons learned about computer program development over the past 25 years, and discusses a software engineering process that addresses these lessons. It then describes how ADA and its related ADA Programming Support and Run-Time Environments foster this software engineering process to improve computer program productivity and achieve greater system reliability and adaptability. Finally, the paper discusses how the use of ADA and its environments can enhance the interoperability and transferability of computer programs among Navy projects, and significantly reduce overall life cycle costs for Navy mission computer programs.
critical Diplomat Room—Session 3B Systems Engineering Moderator: Capt. Peter A. Bunch, USCG Capt. James E. Grabb, USCG (Ret.), assistant 9:30 a.m.
"Arctic Trafficability Program— A Review," by Richard P.
Voelker, Ian F. Glen, Frederick Seibold, and Ian Bayly.
This paper describes a multiyear program to make an operational assessment of the feasibility of a year-round Arctic marine transportation system to serve Alaska. Specifically, the three objectives were to: collect meteorological and ice data along potential marine routes; instrument the hull and propulsion machinery to improve design criteria for iceworthy ships; and to demonstrate that ships can operate in mid-win- ter Alaskan Arctic ice conditions. The U.S. Coast Guard's Polar Class icebreakers were used to make the "operational assessment" by annually extending the route northward and by operating throughout the winter season. This paper reviews some of the operational and technical achievements to date and plans for future Arctic deployments. 10:15 a.m.
"Extension and Application of Ship Design Optimization Code SHIPDOC," by William M. Richardson and William N. White.
(Abstract of this paper not available at press time.) 11:00 a.m.
"Human Factor Considerations Applied to Operations of FFG-8 and LAMPS MK III," by A. Erich Baitis, Terrence R. Applebee, and Thomas M. McNamara.
The FFG/LAMPS MK III Operator Guidance Manual (OGM) was developed for and will apply to all FFG-7 Class frigates that are not fin stabilized or are operating with the fins off. The OGM was developed to assist the ship operators of the FFG-7 Class in choosing ship speed and heading combinations that will minimize actual or potential ship motion-related problems during various phases of LAMPS deployment. Crew safety and performance were major concerns in the development of the OGM. This paper reviews the applications and impact of human factors on ship operation during helicopter recovery, maintenance, and transit to and from the hangar. Empire Room—Session 3C Hull Coatings Moderators: Dr. Alexis I. Kaznoff and Dr. Cyril F. Krolick Robert G. Keane Jr., assistant "New Technology Antifouling Paints: U.S. Navy Research and Assessment," by Gerard S. Bohlander and Herman S. Preiser.
This paper describes several ship trials that are now under way on both destroyers and submarines. More than 200 different commercial and Navy paints have been applied as patches, as bands, on entire hulls, and on exposure test panels mounted on bilge keels. Periodic inspections utilizing diveroperated still and video cameras are made. The factors of ship power, paint condition, and hull roughness are being correlated for selected test vessels.
New trends in antifouling paint technology are also discussed, as are problems associated with application and removal of toxic paint materials.
"Underwater Cleaning Technology," by Christopher P. Cologer.
During the fuel crisis of the early 1970s, the U.S. Navy implemented a program for underwater cleaning of Navy ships. New methods were developed for cleaning, inspection, and performance rating. More than 40 ships involved in multiple cleanings were included in the program over a six-year period. Interactions of hull cleaning with paint performance were studied. Performance factors that evolved included chemical reactions of the copper-based antifouling paints, blistering of the anticorrosion paints, brushing intensity during cleaning, and cathodic protection systems. Underwater cleaning was established as a viable option for extending the service life of antifouling coatings. 11:00 a.m.
"Organotin Antifouling Paints and the Environment—Drydock Phase," by Carl M. Adema and Paul Schatzberg.
Fuel savings of several hundred million dollars annually are expected from a pending Navy decision to use antifouling hull paints based on tributyltin compounds. Several Navy and commercial ship trials have demonstrated that these paints routinely outperform the current military specification paints based on cuprous oxide. Additional savings are expected as a result of less frequent drydocking and the elimination of underwater hull cleaning.
However, because the organotin compounds are more toxic than cuprous oxide, the potential effect on the environment must be considered. Organotin discharge regulations and current drydock practices are reviewed, and the quantity of organotin generated during drydock operations is estimated. An environmental assessment of the Fleet-wide use of organotin antifouling paint is being prepared under contract.
Palladian Room—Session 4A Hull Design Moderator: Capt. Roger M. Nutting, USN Edward N. Comstock, assistant 2:30 p.m.
" 'No Frame' Concept—Its Impact On Shipyard Cost," by Natale S. Nappi, Ronald W. Walz, and Christopher J. Wiernicki. A proposed cost-effective alternative to current U.S. Navy ship design and production practices is presented in this paper. This proposed design for producibility concept involves the elimination of structural stanchions and transverse web frames. The potential impact of this "no frame" concept on structural design, weight, and construction material costs for frigates and destroyers is reflected in 1) reduced costs for installation of distributive systems, 2) a reduced number and complexity of structural details providing a more reliable and less costly structure, 3) reduced total ship depth, and 4) reduced primary hull girder stresses.
"Advanced Technology In Ship Design Analysis and Production," by M.N. Parker, A.Y. Odabasi, P.A. Fitzsimmons, and C.J.
Within the past 10 years, ship design, shipbuilding, and ship operation have witnessed the emergence of new micro-computer technologies that have had a dramatic impact on the way ships are designed, built, and operated. This paper presents the development of the BRITDES computer-aided design and detailing system and its utilization of microcomputers in ship design, analysis, and production.
"An Advanced Methodology for Preliminary Hull Form Development," by Wen-Chin Lin, William G. Day Jr., Jeffrey J.
Hough, Robert G. Keane Jr., David Walden, and In-Young Koh.
An advanced methodology is presented for developing hull forms that attain improved performance in both seakeeping and resistance. Contrary to traditional practice, the methodology starts with developing a seakeeping-optimized hull form without making concessions to other performance considerations, such as resistance. The seakeeping- optimized hull is then modified to achieve improvement in other performance characteristics without degrading the seakeeping. Presented is a point-design example produced by this methodology.
Merits of the methodology and the point-design are assessed on the basis of theoretical calculations and model experiments. This methodology utilizes a subset of the Hull Form Design System that is used at NAVSEA. A brief description of the function and capabilities of the programs in this subset, and their relation to the total HFDS are discussed.
Diplomat Room—Session 4B Ship Propulsion Moderator: Dr. Warren C. Dietz James L. Corder, assistant 2:30 p.m.
"Testing of a Magnetically Treated West German Diesel Engine," by LCdr. James W. White, USN.
Aluminum-block, non-magnetic diesel engines have been less reliable in service than their cast-iron counterparts. Additionally, nonferrous engines are produced in small numbers exclusively for military use and thus have no commercial base with which to enhance logistics support.
A West German manufacturer, Motoren-und Turbinen-Union Friedrichshafen GmbH (MTU), has developed a method for magnetically treating cast-iron engines in such a way as to reduce their magnetic signatures and thus make them available for mine countermeasures applications.
In order to take advantage of the improved reliability and supportability of ferrous but magnetically treated production engines, the U.S. Navy conducted an extensive test and evaluation program to confirm or deny the suitability of the engine for a new class of mine countermeasures ships. This paper describes the unique characteristics of the MTU 6V396TB63 diesel engine, and will consolidate and illustrate the results of endurance, shock, magnetic, and maintenance testing.
"Surface-Hardened Naval Marine Gears with Reference to Alternative Means of Surface Hardening," by Roger Barker and George C. Mudd.
It has become common practice in naval marine gear units of European manufacture to take advantage of the greater load-carrying capacity resulting from a surface-hardening process. The surface-hardening processes available to the gear designer are many and varied, each having advantages and disadvantages.
This paper examines the three principal applicable processes, explains the characteristics of each and how the disadvantages may be controlled. The load-carrying capacity of gears made with the different surface treatments is then discussed, including the effects of hardness gradient, residual stress, and size on capacity.
"Advanced-Cycle Gas Turbines for Naval Ship Propulsion," by Thomas L. Bowen and Dan A.
Investigations are currently being conducted by the Navy and several contractors to determine the technical feasibility and cost effectiveness of advanced regenerative or intercooled-regenerative gas turbines as naval propulsion engines for future mid-size surface combatants. A comparison of the performance characteristics of these engines indicates that significant increases in the thermal efficiency above current simple-cycle engines may result by adding heat exchangers for regeneration alone or with intercooling. Design performance characteristics of several advanced-cycle gas turbines are described that utilize turbomachinery from various existing simplecycle gas turbines. Estimates of the weight and volume of heat exchangers included in these conceptual designs are provided.
by Cdr. John C. Donahue,